A strike is a work stoppage caused by the players refusing to play. When the owners refuse to hold games, the work stoppage is more properly called a lockout, although in common parlance, it is also referred to as a strike.
A strike can also be caused by umpires, or by other personnel associated with staging a baseball game, such as ballpark vendors.
History of player strikes
- see also 1972 strike
The first player strike in major league history lasted from April 1-13. 86 games were lost as a result and were never replayed, resulting in teams playing schedules with a different number of games. The players gained an increase in pension fund payments and the introduction of salary arbitration.
The players went on strike for a week at the end of spring training, indicating they were serious about their demands related to ongoing negotiations of a Collective Bargaining Agreement. No regular season games were canceled, and underlying issues were not resolved, setting the stage for a more serious conflict the following year.
- see also 1981 strike
The 1981 strike was largely fought over the issue of free agent compensation, as owners argued that the recent advent of free agency was upsetting baseball's salary structure and causing excessive prejudice to teams losing front-line players. The players were unwilling to accept a system that would make free agency meaningless (as had happened in the NFL and NHL), leading to a showdown. The strike started on June 12th and play did not resume until the 1981 All-Star Game was staged on August 9th, a month after it was originally scheduled. As approximately one third of the season was lost to the strike, baseball adopted a special split-season schedule that added an extra round of playoffs pitting the first and second half winners in each of the four divisions.
The main result of the strike was the introduction of the short-lived free agent compensation draft.
There was a brief two-day work stoppage on August 6-7, 1985, as negotiations on renewing the agreement struck at the end of the 1981 strike broke down. The games lost to the strike were made up later in the season. However, the fundamental issues were not resolved, leading to the owners secretly adopting a policy of not bidding on free agents over the next three years in an attempt to prevent the growth of salaries. They would be found guilty of collusion by an independent arbitrator as a result.
The owners decreed a lock-out during spring training in 1990, lasting 32 days. Opening Day was pushed back by a week as a result, but the schedule was extended to ensure that no games were cancelled. Teams were also allowed to carry a few extra players on their rosters at the start of the season to compensate for the missed training time. Free agency and salary arbitration were again the main issues in contention, and the climate was tense given the owners had been found guilty of collusion in trying to undermine the free agency system between 1985 and 1988.
- see also 1994 strike
The 1994 strike was the most devastating one, as it brutally interrupted the season on August 11th and was not resolved until the end of March, 1995. In the meantime, the postseason and the World Series were cancelled for the first time in 90 years, and teams went to spring training planning to use replacement players during the 1995 season. In the end, the conflict was resolved just before that eventuality came to pass, and the start of the 1995 season was pushed back by three weeks. The games lost were not made up, and teams were allowed to carry a couple of extra players on their roster at the start of the season, as had been the case in 1990. However, the fundamental issues related to escalating salaries and the competitiveness of small-market teams were not resolved at the time.
There was no actual strike in 2002, although things went close to the brink as a deal for a new Collective Bargaining Agreement was only struck on August 30th, hours before the first games were set to be cancelled. There was significant bitterness and posturing leading up to the deal, with demands from owners for a salary cap and revenue sharing being resisted by the players. In particular, the owners had attempted to contract two teams after the 2001 season, only to be stopped by a court ruling, and were still threatening to make good on the threat until the deal was reached.
As difficult as it was to obtain a deal in 2002, it opened a new era of cooperative bargaining which has resulted in players and owners working together in subsequent negotiations to come up with solutions aimed at the good of the game. There have been no significant threats of strikes since.
History of umpire strikes
The umpires staged a one-day strike on August 25th to force recognition of the Umpires Association as their official bargaining unit.
The umpires walked out on opening day and did not return for seven weeks. The two leagues compensated by promoting several minor league umpires and filling out the ranks with amateur umpires. As the strike lasted, fans began to realize that the replacements were nowhere as good as the regulars, eventually forcing Major League Baseball to grant significant concessions such as paid vacations and salary raises to its umpires. Eight of the umpires promoted from the minor leagues were kept on staff, but they were ostracized by the other umpires, creating tensions that lasted for years.
The umpires struck at the start of the League Championship Series and the conflict was only resolved in time for umpires to return for Game 5 of the 1984 NLCS (the 1984 ALCS had ended in three games, before the conflict was resolved). Replacement umpires were used while the strike lasted.
The umpires struck during spring training. The conflict was resolved just before opening day, but the striking umpires were unable to take up their working assignments immediately, resulting in replacement umpires being used in a number of opening day games.
Just as the devastating 1994 players strike was resolved in the spring of 1995, the umpires in turn went on strike. They missed around two weeks of games before returning to work on May 8th. There was little sympathy for the umpires this time around (as opposed to the 1979 walk-out) as fans were still disgusted over the players strike and just wanted the healing to begin. Many umpires were also displeased with the decision to strike at such an unpopular time, which would eventually lead to the demise of the umpires' union and its leader, Richie Phillips. Once again, replacement umpires were used while the regular umpires were away, although this time Major League Baseball did not pressure minor league umpires to break solidarity with their major league colleagues.
Because the 1995 umpires strike had shown that Major League Baseball was pretty well organized to handle a strike, Richie Phillips devised a different strategy, asking the umpires to send in their resignation letters en masse at the end of August. The idea was to force MLB to negotiate with a figurative gun to its head or risk chaos. However, the umpires were no longer unified, as those contesting Phillips' leadership refused to go along, and MLB exploited the schism by accepting only certain of the resignations, and promoting minor league umpires to fill the gaps. Soon, a rebel faction of umpires had formed a rival union - the World Umpires Association - and it won a certification vote as the legal representative of the umpires. It would take years to reach a final settlement regarding the fate of the umpires who had resigned, but eventually they were all able to either retire with benefits or be reintegrated in the regular umpire ranks. In 2000, the two league umpiring staffs were joined into a single roster, while the new association proved to be much more adept than its predecessor at negotiating work and salary conditions without resorting to walk-outs.
- William B. Gould IV: Bargaining with Baseball: Labor Relations in an Age of Prosperous Turmoil, McFarland, Jefferson, NC, 2011.
- Lee Lowenfish: The Imperfect Diamond: A History of Baseball's Labor Wars, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, NE, 2010.
- Marvin Miller: A Whole Different Ball Game: The Inside Story of the Baseball Revolution, Ivan R. Dee Publishers, Chicago, IL, 2004. ISBN 1566635993
- Bill Swank: "Strike Out: A 1946 Baseball Strike ?", The National Pastime, SABR, Number 20 (2000), pp. 16-19.
- Krister Swanson: Baseball's Power Shift: How the Players Union, the Fans, and the Media Changed American Sports Culture, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, NE, 2016. ISBN 978-0-8032-5523-4