The Union Association, abbreviated UA, was launched by Henry Lucas in 1884. Lucas rigged the schedule to make things easier for his St. Louis Maroons, who dominated the league. Only five of the league's original eight teams survived the season, while four (or five, depending on how you figure things) others appeared at one point or another. Only two teams survived the season in sound financial shape - Lucas's Maroons joined the National League, while Justus Thorner's Cincinnati Outlaw Reds failed in an attempt to replace Detroit in the NL. When the league failed to set up for a second season, two teams, the Milwaukee Cream Citys and Kansas City Cowboys formed a new Western League out of its ashes, but it failed to complete the 1885 season.
The UA has often been included in lists of major leagues, but Bill James devoted several pages in his Historical Baseball Abstract to argue otherwise.
There was also a minor league called the Union Association which operated from 1911 to 1914 in the Rocky Mountains; it was a class D league.
1884 Teams & Statistics
1884 Union Association
President: Henry Lucas
|St. Louis Maroons||94||19||.832||0||Henry Lucas|
|Cincinnati Outlaw Reds||69||36||.657||21||Dan O'Leary /Sam Crane|
|Baltimore Monumentals||58||47||.552||32||Charlie Levis / Bill Henderson|
|Boston Reds||58||51||.532||34||Tim Murnane|
|Washington Nationals||47||65||.420||46.5||Mike Scanlon|
|Milwaukee Cream Citys||8||4||.667||NA||Tom Loftus|
|Philadelphia Keystones (2)||21||46||.313||NA||Fergy Malone / Tom Pratt|
|St. Paul Apostles||2||6||.250||NA||Andrew Thompson|
|Altoona Mountain City (1)||6||19||.240||NA||Ed Curtis|
|Kansas City Cowboys||16||63||.203||NA||Ted Sullivan|
|Wilmington Quicksteps (4)||2||16||.111||NA||Joe Simmons|
(1) Altoona disbanded May 31 & Kansas City replaced them June 7.
(2) Philadelphia disbanded Aug. 7 & Wilmington replaced them AUG. 18.
(3) Chicago moved to Pittsburgh August 20.
(4) Wilmington disbanded September 15 & Milwaukee replaced them September 27.
(5) Pittsburgh disbanded September 19 & St. Paul replaced them September 27.
|Fred Dunlap||St. Louis||BA||.412||Bill Sweeney||Baltimore||W||40|
|Fred Dunlap||St. Louis||Runs||160||Hugh Daily||Chi/Pitt/Wash||SO||483|
|Fred Dunlap||St. Louis||Hits||185||Jim McCormick||Cincinnati||ERA||1.54|
|Fred Dunlap||St. Louis||HR||13||Jim McCormick||Cincinnati||Pct||.875; 21-3|
- Bill James: "State of the Union", in The New Bill James Historical Baseball Abstract, The Free Press, New York, NY, 2001, pp. 21-34.
- Justin Mckinney: Baseball’s Union Association: The Short, Strange Life of a 19th-Century Major League, McFarland, Jefferson, NC, 2022. ISBN 978-1-4766-8060-6
- David Nemec: The Beer and Whisky League, Lyons Press, Guilford, CT, 2003 (originally published in 1995). ISBN 978-1558212855
- Brian A. Podoll: The Minor League Milwaukee Brewers: 1859-1952, McFarland, Jefferson, NC, 2003.
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