Edward W. Bolden
Ed Bolden was one of the Negro Leagues' leading executives. He was the owner of the Hilldale Club when they were a Negro League powerhouse in the 1920s and later ran the Philadelphia Stars. In between his tenure with the two teams, he suffered a nervous breakdown that kept him out of action for several years. In 1923, Bolden helped found the Eastern Colored League, along with Nat Strong. Bolden ran the league for most of its existence. He was criticized by Rube Foster for his working with white funders; Foster also did it, but less frequently and behind the scenes. Also, some of Bolden's connections were openly racist.
Outside of baseball, he was an employee of the United States Postal Service for 42 years.
- Courtney Michelle Smith: Ed Bolden and Black Baseball in Philadelphia, McFarland, Jefferson, NC, 2017. ISBN 978-0-7864-7849-1