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1977 National League Pitching Leaders

League Index / Batting Leaders / Pitching Leaders / Map of Teams / Other Years: 1976 / 1978
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League Player Pitching

Rk Name Age Tm Lev Aff W L W-L% ERA RAvg G GS GF CG SHO SV IP H R ER HR BB IBB SO HBP BK WP BF WHIP H9 HR9 BB9 SO9 SO/W
1 Steve Carlton* 32 PHI MLB PHI 23 10 .697 2.64 3.15 36 36 0 17 2 0 283.0 229 99 83 25 89 5 198 4 7 3 1135 1.124 7.3 0.8 2.8 6.3 2.22
2 Tom Seaver 32 CIN,NYN MLB CIN-NYM 21 6 .778 2.58 2.69 33 33 0 19 7 0 261.1 199 78 75 19 66 6 196 0 1 7 1031 1.014 6.9 0.7 2.3 6.8 2.97
3 John Candelaria* 23 PIT MLB PIT 20 5 .800 2.34 2.50 33 33 0 6 1 0 230.2 197 64 60 29 50 2 133 2 2 1 917 1.071 7.7 1.1 2.0 5.2 2.66
4 Bob Forsch 27 SLN MLB STL 20 7 .741 3.48 4.02 35 35 0 8 2 0 217.1 210 97 84 20 69 2 95 3 1 9 915 1.284 8.7 0.8 2.9 3.9 1.38
5 Tommy John* 34 LAN MLB LAD 20 7 .741 2.78 3.35 31 31 0 11 3 0 220.1 225 82 68 12 50 3 123 3 0 6 906 1.248 9.2 0.5 2.0 5.0 2.46
6 Rick Reuschel 28 CHN MLB CHC 20 10 .667 2.79 3.00 39 37 2 8 4 1 252.0 233 84 78 13 74 11 166 5 1 9 1030 1.218 8.3 0.5 2.6 5.9 2.24
7 Larry Christenson 23 PHI MLB PHI 19 6 .760 4.06 4.64 34 34 0 5 1 0 219.1 229 113 99 21 69 1 118 7 6 7 945 1.359 9.4 0.9 2.8 4.8 1.71
8 J.R. Richard 27 HOU MLB HOU 18 12 .600 2.97 3.17 36 36 0 13 3 0 267.0 212 94 88 18 104 1 214 0 1 6 1092 1.184 7.1 0.6 3.5 7.2 2.06
9 Steve Rogers 27 MON MLB MON 17 16 .515 3.10 3.64 40 40 0 17 4 0 301.2 272 122 104 16 81 3 206 5 1 14 1235 1.170 8.1 0.5 2.4 6.1 2.54
10 Ed Halicki 26 SFN MLB SFG 16 12 .571 3.32 3.67 37 37 0 7 2 0 257.2 241 105 95 27 70 5 168 7 3 1 1076 1.207 8.4 0.9 2.4 5.9 2.40
11 Phil Niekro 38 ATL MLB ATL 16 20 .444 4.03 4.52 44 43 1 20 2 0 330.1 315 166 148 26 164 12 262 8 3 17 1428 1.450 8.6 0.7 4.5 7.1 1.60
12 Rick Rhoden 24 LAN MLB LAD 16 10 .615 3.74 4.08 31 31 0 4 1 0 216.1 223 98 90 20 63 1 122 2 0 5 906 1.322 9.3 0.8 2.6 5.1 1.94
13 Ray Burris 26 CHN MLB CHC 14 16 .467 4.72 5.38 39 39 0 5 1 0 221.0 270 132 116 29 67 9 105 3 0 8 970 1.525 11.0 1.2 2.7 4.3 1.57
14 Fred Norman* 34 CIN MLB CIN 14 13 .519 3.38 3.94 35 34 0 8 1 0 221.1 200 97 83 28 98 9 160 3 1 11 945 1.346 8.1 1.1 4.0 6.5 1.63
15 Doug Rau* 28 LAN MLB LAD 14 8 .636 3.43 3.69 32 32 0 4 2 0 212.1 232 87 81 15 49 2 126 6 1 3 896 1.323 9.8 0.6 2.1 5.3 2.57
16 Jim Rooker* 34 PIT MLB PIT 14 9 .609 3.08 3.83 30 30 0 7 2 0 204.1 196 87 70 24 64 4 89 0 2 8 854 1.272 8.6 1.1 2.8 3.9 1.39
17 Don Sutton 32 LAN MLB LAD 14 8 .636 3.18 3.48 33 33 0 9 3 0 240.1 207 93 85 23 69 2 150 3 1 5 979 1.148 7.8 0.9 2.6 5.6 2.17
18 Joe Niekro 32 HOU MLB HOU 13 8 .619 3.04 3.29 44 14 12 9 2 5 180.2 155 66 61 14 64 3 101 1 1 5 737 1.212 7.7 0.7 3.2 5.0 1.58
19 Jim Barr 29 SFN MLB SFG 12 16 .429 4.76 4.99 38 38 0 6 2 0 234.1 286 130 124 18 56 4 97 3 2 2 1011 1.459 11.0 0.7 2.2 3.7 1.73
20 Burt Hooton 27 LAN MLB LAD 12 7 .632 2.62 2.98 32 31 1 6 2 1 223.1 184 74 65 14 60 5 153 3 1 5 897 1.093 7.4 0.6 2.4 6.2 2.55
21 Bob Shirley* 23 SDN MLB SDP 12 18 .400 3.70 4.50 39 35 0 1 0 0 214.0 215 107 88 22 100 14 146 4 6 5 948 1.472 9.0 0.9 4.2 6.1 1.46
22 Joaquin Andujar 24 HOU MLB HOU 11 8 .579 3.69 4.54 26 25 1 4 1 0 158.2 149 80 65 11 64 3 69 4 2 2 678 1.342 8.5 0.6 3.6 3.9 1.08
23 Rich Gossage 25 PIT MLB PIT 11 9 .550 1.62 1.83 72 0 55 0 0 26 133.0 78 27 24 9 49 6 151 2 0 2 523 0.955 5.3 0.6 3.3 10.2 3.08
24 Bob Knepper* 23 SFN MLB SFG 11 9 .550 3.36 3.96 27 27 0 6 2 0 166.0 151 73 62 14 72 2 100 3 0 6 710 1.343 8.2 0.8 3.9 5.4 1.39
25 Jim Lonborg 35 PHI MLB PHI 11 4 .733 4.11 4.40 25 25 0 4 1 0 157.2 157 77 72 15 50 5 76 5 2 6 666 1.313 9.0 0.9 2.9 4.3 1.52
26 Eric Rasmussen 25 SLN MLB STL 11 17 .393 3.48 3.98 34 34 0 11 3 0 233.0 223 103 90 24 63 7 120 5 2 2 962 1.227 8.6 0.9 2.4 4.6 1.90
27 Jack Billingham 34 CIN MLB CIN 10 10 .500 5.23 5.85 36 23 8 3 2 0 161.2 195 105 94 16 56 9 76 10 0 7 724 1.553 10.9 0.9 3.1 4.2 1.36
28 Bill Bonham 28 CHN MLB CHC 10 13 .435 4.36 4.65 34 34 0 1 0 0 214.2 207 111 104 15 82 16 134 3 2 3 915 1.346 8.7 0.6 3.4 5.6 1.63
29 Pedro Borbon 30 CIN MLB CIN 10 5 .667 3.19 3.40 73 0 54 0 0 18 127.0 131 48 45 7 24 4 48 3 0 2 525 1.220 9.3 0.5 1.7 3.4 2.00
30 Nino Espinosa 23 NYN MLB NYM 10 13 .435 3.42 3.69 32 29 2 7 1 0 200.0 188 82 76 17 55 5 105 5 2 2 825 1.215 8.5 0.8 2.5 4.7 1.91
31 Randy Lerch* 22 PHI MLB PHI 10 6 .625 5.07 5.44 32 28 1 3 0 0 168.2 207 102 95 20 75 3 81 1 2 8 761 1.672 11.0 1.1 4.0 4.3 1.08
32 Jerry Reuss* 28 PIT MLB PIT 10 13 .435 4.11 4.72 33 33 0 8 2 0 208.0 225 109 95 11 71 2 116 4 1 11 894 1.423 9.7 0.5 3.1 5.0 1.63
33 Don Stanhouse 26 MON MLB MON 10 10 .500 3.41 4.09 47 16 17 1 1 10 158.1 147 72 60 12 84 9 89 4 0 4 689 1.459 8.4 0.7 4.8 5.1 1.06
34 Kent Tekulve 30 PIT MLB PIT 10 1 .909 3.06 3.58 72 0 35 0 0 7 103.0 89 41 35 5 33 6 59 1 1 2 422 1.184 7.8 0.4 2.9 5.2 1.79
35 Pat Zachry 25 NYN,CIN MLB NYM-CIN 10 13 .435 4.25 4.81 31 31 0 5 1 0 194.2 207 104 92 21 77 5 99 4 1 0 845 1.459 9.6 1.0 3.6 4.6 1.29
36 Jackie Brown 34 MON MLB MON 9 12 .429 4.51 4.80 42 25 3 6 2 0 185.2 189 99 93 15 71 5 89 4 0 2 804 1.400 9.2 0.7 3.4 4.3 1.25
37 Bruce Kison 27 PIT MLB PIT 9 10 .474 4.90 5.27 33 32 0 3 1 0 193.0 209 113 105 25 55 6 122 6 1 6 830 1.368 9.7 1.2 2.6 5.7 2.22
38 Mark Lemongello 21 HOU MLB HOU 9 14 .391 3.48 3.69 34 30 1 5 0 0 214.2 237 88 83 20 52 4 83 3 3 0 910 1.346 9.9 0.8 2.2 3.5 1.60
39 Bob Owchinko* 22 SDN MLB SDP 9 12 .429 4.45 4.92 30 28 0 3 2 0 170.0 191 93 84 20 67 5 101 0 2 5 743 1.518 10.1 1.1 3.5 5.3 1.51
40 Craig Swan 26 NYN MLB NYM 9 10 .474 4.23 4.66 26 24 2 2 1 0 146.2 153 76 69 10 56 3 71 1 2 1 638 1.425 9.4 0.6 3.4 4.4 1.27
41 Tom Underwood* 23 SLN,PHI MLB STL-PHI 9 11 .450 5.00 5.54 33 17 7 1 0 1 133.1 148 82 74 9 75 6 86 1 0 7 601 1.672 10.0 0.6 5.1 5.8 1.15
42 Stan Bahnsen 32 MON MLB MON 8 9 .471 4.81 5.37 23 22 0 3 1 0 127.1 142 76 68 14 38 2 58 0 0 4 547 1.414 10.0 1.0 2.7 4.1 1.53
43 Floyd Bannister* 22 HOU MLB HOU 8 9 .471 4.04 4.42 24 23 0 4 1 0 142.2 138 70 64 11 68 1 112 4 2 6 622 1.444 8.7 0.7 4.3 7.1 1.65
44 John Denny 24 SLN MLB STL 8 8 .500 4.51 5.11 26 26 0 3 1 0 149.2 165 85 75 9 62 0 60 5 1 6 664 1.517 9.9 0.5 3.7 3.6 0.97
45 Rollie Fingers 30 SDN MLB SDP 8 9 .471 2.99 3.20 78 0 69 0 0 35 132.1 123 47 44 12 36 12 113 1 1 2 543 1.202 8.4 0.8 2.4 7.7 3.14
46 Gene Garber 29 PHI MLB PHI 8 6 .571 2.35 2.61 64 0 44 0 0 19 103.1 82 30 27 6 23 8 78 2 0 1 406 1.016 7.1 0.5 2.0 6.8 3.39
47 Willie Hernandez* 22 CHN MLB CHC 8 7 .533 3.03 3.44 67 1 23 0 0 4 110.0 94 42 37 11 28 9 78 1 3 8 437 1.109 7.7 0.9 2.3 6.4 2.79
48 Jerry Koosman* 34 NYN MLB NYM 8 20 .286 3.49 4.05 32 32 0 6 1 0 226.2 195 102 88 17 81 8 192 4 4 2 940 1.218 7.7 0.7 3.2 7.6 2.37
49 Mike Krukow 25 CHN MLB CHC 8 14 .364 4.40 5.02 34 33 0 1 1 0 172.0 195 96 84 16 61 8 106 3 4 6 767 1.488 10.2 0.8 3.2 5.5 1.74
50 Bill Atkinson 22 MON MLB MON 7 2 .778 3.35 3.56 55 0 30 0 0 7 83.1 72 33 31 12 29 11 56 0 0 5 346 1.212 7.8 1.3 3.1 6.0 1.93
51 Warren Brusstar 25 PHI MLB PHI 7 2 .778 2.65 3.28 46 0 8 0 0 3 71.1 64 26 21 7 24 3 46 1 0 3 285 1.234 8.1 0.9 3.0 5.8 1.92
52 Doug Capilla* 25 CIN,SLN MLB CIN-STL 7 8 .467 4.47 4.72 24 16 3 1 0 0 108.2 96 57 54 10 61 1 75 2 0 8 472 1.445 8.0 0.8 5.1 6.2 1.23
53 Dave Freisleben 25 SDN MLB SDP 7 9 .438 4.61 5.58 33 23 1 1 0 0 138.2 140 86 71 21 71 9 72 2 0 6 608 1.522 9.1 1.4 4.6 4.7 1.01
54 Gary Lavelle* 28 SFN MLB SFG 7 7 .500 2.05 2.66 73 0 49 0 0 20 118.1 106 35 27 4 37 18 93 0 0 2 485 1.208 8.1 0.3 2.8 7.1 2.51
55 Jon Matlack* 27 NYN MLB NYM 7 15 .318 4.21 4.58 26 26 0 5 3 0 169.0 175 86 79 19 43 7 123 2 2 2 702 1.290 9.3 1.0 2.3 6.6 2.86
56 Tug McGraw* 32 PHI MLB PHI 7 3 .700 2.62 2.85 45 0 31 0 0 9 79.0 62 25 23 6 24 5 58 1 0 1 311 1.089 7.1 0.7 2.7 6.6 2.42
57 John Montefusco 27 SFN MLB SFG 7 12 .368 3.49 4.69 26 25 0 4 0 0 157.1 170 82 61 10 46 6 110 3 0 5 689 1.373 9.7 0.6 2.6 6.3 2.39
58 Dale Murray 27 CIN MLB CIN 7 2 .778 4.94 5.29 61 1 20 0 0 4 102.0 125 60 56 13 46 6 42 2 1 4 457 1.676 11.0 1.1 4.1 3.7 0.91
59 Ron Reed 34 PHI MLB PHI 7 5 .583 2.75 2.97 60 3 35 0 0 15 124.1 101 41 38 9 37 7 84 1 0 4 498 1.110 7.3 0.7 2.7 6.1 2.27
60 Dick Ruthven 26 ATL MLB ATL 7 13 .350 4.23 5.13 25 23 1 6 2 0 151.0 158 86 71 14 62 6 84 1 4 2 666 1.457 9.4 0.8 3.7 5.0 1.35
61 Rick Sawyer 29 SDN MLB SDP 7 6 .538 5.84 6.24 56 9 15 0 0 0 111.0 136 77 72 15 55 11 45 7 2 10 508 1.721 11.0 1.2 4.5 3.6 0.82
62 Dan Spillner 25 SDN MLB SDP 7 6 .538 3.73 4.46 76 0 30 0 0 6 123.0 130 61 51 12 60 13 74 1 0 5 542 1.545 9.5 0.9 4.4 5.4 1.23
63 Bruce Sutter 24 CHN MLB CHC 7 3 .700 1.34 1.76 62 0 48 0 0 31 107.1 69 21 16 5 23 7 129 1 0 7 411 0.857 5.8 0.4 1.9 10.8 5.61
64 John Urrea 22 SLN MLB STL 7 6 .538 3.16 3.61 41 12 15 2 1 4 139.2 126 56 49 13 35 3 81 0 1 5 560 1.153 8.1 0.8 2.3 5.2 2.31
65 Rick Camp 24 ATL MLB ATL 6 3 .667 4.00 5.38 54 0 34 0 0 10 78.2 89 47 35 6 47 13 51 1 2 8 374 1.729 10.2 0.7 5.4 5.8 1.09
66 Buzz Capra 29 ATL MLB ATL 6 11 .353 5.36 5.68 45 16 7 0 0 0 139.1 142 88 83 28 80 12 100 4 0 7 633 1.593 9.2 1.8 5.2 6.5 1.25
67 Larry Demery 24 PIT MLB PIT 6 5 .545 5.08 5.88 39 8 8 0 0 1 90.1 100 59 51 13 47 3 35 0 0 6 409 1.627 10.0 1.3 4.7 3.5 0.74
68 Terry Forster* 25 PIT MLB PIT 6 4 .600 4.43 4.84 33 6 7 0 0 1 87.1 90 47 43 7 32 3 58 2 1 3 378 1.397 9.3 0.7 3.3 6.0 1.81
69 Tom Griffin 29 SDN MLB SDP 6 9 .400 4.46 5.23 38 20 4 0 0 0 151.1 144 88 75 17 88 8 79 5 6 4 672 1.533 8.6 1.0 5.2 4.7 0.90
70 Charlie Hough 29 LAN MLB LAD 6 12 .333 3.32 3.75 70 1 53 0 0 22 127.1 98 53 47 10 70 6 105 7 0 8 551 1.319 6.9 0.7 4.9 7.4 1.50
71 Al Hrabosky* 27 SLN MLB STL 6 5 .545 4.38 4.59 65 0 39 0 0 10 86.1 82 44 42 12 41 7 68 3 0 4 374 1.425 8.5 1.3 4.3 7.1 1.66
72 Randy Jones* 27 SDN MLB SDP 6 12 .333 4.58 5.19 27 25 1 1 0 0 147.1 173 85 75 12 36 10 44 0 3 1 642 1.419 10.6 0.7 2.2 2.7 1.22
73 Jim Kaat* 38 PHI MLB PHI 6 11 .353 5.39 5.61 35 27 3 2 0 0 160.1 211 100 96 20 40 6 55 2 0 2 709 1.565 11.8 1.1 2.2 3.1 1.38
74 Paul Moskau 23 CIN MLB CIN 6 6 .500 4.00 4.25 20 19 1 2 2 0 108.0 116 51 48 10 40 3 71 1 2 4 467 1.444 9.7 0.8 3.3 5.9 1.78
75 Buddy Schultz* 26 SLN MLB STL 6 1 .857 2.32 2.74 40 3 6 0 0 1 85.1 76 26 22 5 24 0 66 0 0 1 343 1.172 8.0 0.5 2.5 7.0 2.75
76 Eddie Solomon 26 ATL MLB ATL 6 6 .500 4.57 6.50 18 16 0 0 0 0 88.2 110 64 45 10 34 2 54 2 2 3 403 1.624 11.2 1.0 3.5 5.5 1.59
77 Wayne Twitchell 29 MON,PHI MLB MON-PHI 6 10 .375 4.29 4.78 34 30 3 2 0 0 184.2 166 98 88 21 74 4 130 5 0 7 776 1.300 8.1 1.0 3.6 6.3 1.76
78 Charlie Williams 29 SFN MLB SFG 6 5 .545 4.00 4.68 55 8 10 1 0 0 119.1 116 62 53 9 60 16 41 3 0 3 512 1.475 8.7 0.7 4.5 3.1 0.68
79 Rawly Eastwick 26 SLN,CIN MLB STL-CIN 5 9 .357 3.90 4.45 64 1 38 0 0 11 97.0 114 48 42 9 29 4 47 0 1 2 420 1.474 10.6 0.8 2.7 4.4 1.62
80 Ken Forsch 30 HOU MLB HOU 5 8 .385 2.72 3.35 42 5 28 0 0 8 86.0 80 32 26 2 28 6 45 2 0 3 364 1.256 8.4 0.2 2.9 4.7 1.61
81 Woodie Fryman* 37 CIN MLB CIN 5 5 .500 5.38 5.38 17 12 1 0 0 1 75.1 83 45 45 13 45 2 57 2 0 3 343 1.699 9.9 1.6 5.4 6.8 1.27
82 Dave Heaverlo 26 SFN MLB SFG 5 1 .833 2.55 3.28 56 0 12 0 0 1 98.2 92 36 28 10 21 8 58 3 0 0 398 1.145 8.4 0.9 1.9 5.3 2.76
83 Grant Jackson* 34 PIT MLB PIT 5 3 .625 3.86 4.35 49 2 19 0 0 4 91.0 81 44 39 11 39 8 41 1 1 0 385 1.319 8.0 1.1 3.9 4.1 1.05
84 Andy Messersmith 31 ATL MLB ATL 5 4 .556 4.40 4.75 16 16 0 1 0 0 102.1 101 54 50 12 39 5 69 2 0 5 447 1.368 8.9 1.1 3.4 6.1 1.77
85 Gene Pentz 24 HOU MLB HOU 5 2 .714 3.83 4.24 41 4 16 0 0 2 87.0 76 41 37 8 44 5 51 1 2 9 375 1.379 7.9 0.8 4.6 5.3 1.16
86 Paul Reuschel 30 CHN MLB CHC 5 6 .455 4.37 4.88 69 0 26 0 0 4 107.0 105 58 52 9 40 8 62 0 2 5 452 1.355 8.8 0.8 3.4 5.2 1.55
87 Joe Sambito* 25 HOU MLB HOU 5 5 .500 2.33 3.44 54 1 32 0 0 7 89.0 77 34 23 6 24 2 67 0 1 2 357 1.135 7.8 0.6 2.4 6.8 2.79
88 Bob Apodaca 27 NYN MLB NYM 4 8 .333 3.43 4.07 59 0 27 0 0 5 84.0 83 38 32 7 30 11 53 1 1 2 367 1.345 8.9 0.8 3.2 5.7 1.77
89 Clay Carroll 36 SLN MLB STL 4 2 .667 2.50 2.80 51 1 16 0 0 4 90.0 77 28 25 8 24 8 34 1 1 0 357 1.122 7.7 0.8 2.4 3.4 1.42
90 Pete Falcone* 23 SLN MLB STL 4 8 .333 5.44 5.73 27 22 3 1 1 1 124.0 130 79 75 19 61 3 75 3 1 4 553 1.540 9.4 1.4 4.4 5.4 1.23
91 Mike Garman 27 LAN MLB LAD 4 4 .500 2.73 2.87 49 0 30 0 0 12 62.2 60 20 19 7 22 5 29 2 1 0 264 1.309 8.6 1.0 3.2 4.2 1.32
92 Max Leon 27 ATL MLB ATL 4 4 .500 3.97 4.63 31 9 11 0 0 1 81.2 89 42 36 9 25 2 44 9 1 1 359 1.396 9.8 1.0 2.8 4.8 1.76
93 Skip Lockwood 30 NYN MLB NYM 4 8 .333 3.38 3.46 63 0 50 0 0 20 104.0 87 40 39 5 31 11 84 4 1 3 427 1.135 7.5 0.4 2.7 7.3 2.71
94 Bo McLaughlin 23 HOU MLB HOU 4 7 .364 4.25 4.68 46 6 29 0 0 5 84.2 81 44 40 6 34 6 59 6 1 3 359 1.358 8.6 0.6 3.6 6.3 1.74
95 Butch Metzger 25 SLN,SDN MLB STL-SDP 4 2 .667 3.59 4.06 75 1 32 0 0 7 115.1 105 52 46 13 50 6 54 2 0 2 494 1.344 8.2 1.0 3.9 4.2 1.08
96 Randy Moffitt 28 SFN MLB SFG 4 9 .308 3.59 4.21 64 0 32 0 0 11 87.2 91 41 35 4 39 13 68 3 0 3 388 1.483 9.3 0.4 4.0 7.0 1.74
97 Donnie Moore 23 CHN MLB CHC 4 2 .667 4.07 4.99 27 1 5 0 0 0 48.2 51 27 22 1 18 7 34 0 4 2 207 1.418 9.4 0.2 3.3 6.3 1.89
98 Gary Nolan 29 CIN MLB CIN 4 1 .800 4.81 5.03 8 8 0 0 0 0 39.1 53 22 21 5 12 1 28 0 1 0 179 1.653 12.1 1.1 2.7 6.4 2.33
99 Lance Rautzhan* 24 LAN MLB LAD 4 1 .800 4.35 4.35 25 0 5 0 0 2 20.2 25 10 10 0 7 1 13 0 0 0 89 1.548 10.9 0.0 3.0 5.7 1.86
100 Dave Tomlin* 28 SDN MLB SDP 4 4 .500 3.01 3.36 76 0 22 0 0 3 101.2 98 38 34 3 32 11 55 2 2 1 424 1.279 8.7 0.3 2.8 4.9 1.72

About the Minor League Data

Historical performance data for professional leagues (affiliated minor leagues, independent minor leagues, fall/winter leagues, and other international leagues) is provided by and licensed from 24-7 Baseball and Chadwick Baseball Bureau. It incorporates the work of many stalwart baseball researchers, including Cliff Blau, Art Cantu, Frank Hamilton, Reed Howard, Kevin Johnson, Bob McConnell, Jack Morris, and Ray Nemec, as well as members of the Minor Leagues Committee of the Society for American Baseball Research.

Perhaps most importantly, it builds upon the seminal work of Ed Washuta, who magnanimously provided the framework to make the whole thing possible.

Minor league Total Zone (Rctch&Rtz, 2005-2009) data provided by Baseballprojection.com and Minorleaguesplits.com.