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International League

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League
Season
Summaries
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012

The International League is a class AAA minor league. It used to trace its origins to the Eastern League, which formed in 1892 and changed its name to the International League 20 years later. In the thirties, league officials claimed origins in 1884 by a rather tortured process, going through the Eastern League (1884), New York State League (1885), International League (1886-1887), International Association (1888-1890), Eastern Association (1891), Eastern League again (1892-1911), and finally the International League again, this time to last. Since the 1890s, it has been one of the three strongest minor leagues and the longest-lasting league in the top tier of the minors. The "international" in the name was due to the league having teams in Toronto and Montréal for decades. The better-known International League reached its international peak in the 1950's when it expanded to Havana, Cuba. It also experimented briefly with a club in San Juan, Puerto Rico in 1961, but this didn't last through the year. When Toronto left the league in 1967, it was no longer international, but retained the name. It has occasionally had clubs in Canada since then but the name has often rung false. In 2007 the league re-started its Hall of Fame with the elections of longtime executives Harold Cooper and George Sisler Jr.

The league has traditionally been the eastern-most of the high minor leagues, with a strong basis in upstate New York (Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse have all had long associations with the IL).

The trophy awarded to the winner of the International League's play-offs since is known as the Governors' Cup.

It should be noted that there was another, short-lived International League, in 1898 that had teams in Ontario and Michigan, and a second, a class D outfit which operated with four teams for less than one season in 1908 and was based in Ontario and New York State.

Contents

[edit] Current Teams, Managers, and Affiliations

North Division South Division West Division
Team Manager Affiliation Team Manager Affiliation Team Manager Affiliation
Buffalo Bisons Marty Brown Toronto Blue Jays Charlotte Knights Joel Skinner Chicago White Sox Columbus Clippers Mike Sarbaugh Cleveland Indians
Scranton/Wilkes-Barre RailRiders Dave Miley New York Yankees Durham Bulls Charlie Montoyo Tampa Bay Rays Indianapolis Indians Dean Treanor Pittsburgh Pirates
Lehigh Valley IronPigs Dave Brundage Philadelphia Phillies Gwinnett Braves Randy Ready Atlanta Braves Louisville Bats Delino DeShields Cincinnati Reds
Pawtucket Red Sox Arnie Beyeler Boston Red Sox Norfolk Tides Ron Johnson Baltimore Orioles Toledo Mud Hens Larry Parrish Detroit Tigers
Rochester Red Wings Mike Quade Minnesota Twins
Syracuse Chiefs Tony Beasley Washington Nationals

[edit] League Champions

BOLD indicates Governors' Cup winner
Year Team Manager Winning Percentage Interleague Postseason Play
1912 Toronto Maple Leafs .596
1913 Newark Indians .625
1914 Providence Grays .617
1915 Buffalo Bisons .532
1916 Buffalo Bisons .586
1917 Toronto Maple Leafs .604 Little World Series
1918 Toronto Maple Leafs .693
1919 Baltimore Orioles .671
1920 Baltimore Orioles .719 Little World Series
1921 Baltimore Orioles .717 Little World Series
1922 Baltimore Orioles .689 Little World Series Tune-up, Little World Series
1923 Baltimore Orioles .677 Little World Series Tune-up, Little World Series
1924 Baltimore Orioles .709 Little World Series Tune-up, Little World Series
1925 Baltimore Orioles .633 Little World Series Tune-up, Little World Series
1926 Toronto Maple Leafs .657 Little World Series
1927 Buffalo Bisons .667 Eastern Championship, Little World Series
1928 Rochester Red Wings .549 Eastern Championship, Little World Series
1929 Rochester Red Wings .613 Little World Series
1930 Rochester Red Wings .629 Little World Series
1931 Rochester Red Wings .601 Little World Series
1932 Newark Bears .649 Junior World Series
1933 Buffalo Bisons Ray Schalk Junior World Series
1934 Toronto Maple Leafs Ike Boone Junior World Series
1935 Syracuse Chiefs Nemo Leibold
1936 Buffalo Bisons Ray Schalk Junior World Series
1937 Newark Bears Oscar Vitt Junior World Series
1938 Newark Bears Johnny Neun Junior World Series
1939 Rochester Red Wings Billy Southworth Junior World Series
1940 Newark Bears Johnny Neun Junior World Series
1941 Montreal Royals Clyde Sukeforth Junior World Series
1942 Syracuse Chiefs Jewel Ens Junior World Series
1943 Syracuse Chiefs Jewel Ens Junior World Series
1944 Baltimore Orioles Tommy Thomas Junior World Series
1945 Newark Bears Bill Meyer Junior World Series
1946 Montreal Royals Clay Hopper Junior World Series
1947 Syracuse Chiefs Jewel Ens Junior World Series
1948 Montreal Royals Clay Hopper Junior World Series
1949 Montreal Royals Clay Hopper Junior World Series
1950 Baltimore Orioles Nick Cullop Junior World Series
1951 Montreal Royals Walter Alston Junior World Series
1952 Rochester Red Wings Harry Walker Junior World Series
1953 Montreal Royals Walter Alston Junior World Series
1954 Syracuse Chiefs Skeeter Newsome Junior World Series
1955 Rochester Red Wings Fred Walker Junior World Series
1956 Rochester Red Wings Fred Walker Junior World Series
1957 Buffalo Bisons Phil Cavarretta Junior World Series
1958 Montreal Royals Clay Bryant Junior World Series
1959 Havana Sugar Kings Preston Gomez Junior World Series
1960 Toronto Maple Leafs Mel McGaha Junior World Series
1961 Buffalo Bisons Kerby Farrell Junior World Series
1962 Atlanta Crackers Joe Schultz Junior World Series
1963 Indianapolis Indians Rollie Hemsley
1964 Rochester Red Wings Darrell Johnson
1965 Toronto Maple Leafs Dick Williams
1966 Toronto Maple Leafs Dick Williams
1967 Toledo Mud Hens Jack Tighe
1968 Jacksonville Suns Clyde McCullough
1969 Syracuse Chiefs Frank Verdi
1970 Syracuse Chiefs Frank Verdi Junior World Series
1971 Rochester Red Wings Joe Altobelli Junior World Series
1972 Tidewater Tides Hank Bauer World Baseball Championship
1973 Pawtucket Red Sox Darrell Johnson Junior World Series
1974 Rochester Red Wings Joe Altobelli Junior World Series
1975 Tidewater Tides Joe Frazier
1976 Syracuse Chiefs Bobby Cox
1977 Charleston Charlies Jim Beauchamp
1978 Richmond Braves Tommie Aaron
1979 Columbus Clippers Gene Michael
1980 Columbus Clippers Joe Altobelli
1981 Columbus Clippers Frank Verdi
1982 Tidewater Tides Jack Aker
1983 Tidewater Tides Davey Johnson Triple-A World Series
1984 Pawtucket Red Sox Tony Torchia
1985 Tidewater Tides Bob Schaefer
1986 Richmond Braves Roy Majtyka
1987 Columbus Clippers Bucky Dent
1988 Rochester Red Wings Johnny Oates Triple-A Classic
1989 Richmond Braves Jim Beauchamp Triple-A Classic
1990 Rochester Red Wings Greg Biagini Triple-A Classic
1991 Columbus Clippers Rick Down Triple-A Classic
1992 Columbus Clippers Rick Down
1993 Charlotte Knights Charlie Manuel
1994 Richmond Braves Grady Little
1995 Ottawa Lynx Pete Mackanin
1996 Columbus Clippers Stump Merrill
1997 Rochester Red Wings Marv Foley
1998 Buffalo Bisons Jeff Datz Triple-A World Series
1999 Charlotte Knights Tom Spencer Triple-A World Series
2000 Indianapolis Indians Steve Smith Triple-A World Series
2001 Louisville RiverBats Dave Miley
2002 Durham Bulls Bill Evers
2003 Durham Bulls Bill Evers
2004 Buffalo Bisons Marty Brown
2005 Toledo Mud Hens Larry Parrish
2006 Toledo Mud Hens Larry Parrish Bricktown Showdown
2007 Richmond Braves Dave Brundage Bricktown Showdown
2008 Scranton/Wilkes-Barre Yankees Dave Miley Bricktown Showdown
2009 Durham Bulls Charlie Montoyo .576 Triple-A Baseball National Championship
2010 Columbus Clippers Mike Sarbaugh .549 Triple-A Baseball National Championship
2011 Columbus Clippers Mike Sarbaugh .611 Triple-A Baseball National Championship
2012 Pawtucket Red Sox Arnie Beyeler .549 Triple-A Baseball National Championship
2013 Durham Bulls Charlie Montoyo .604 Triple-A Baseball National Championship
2014 Pawtucket Red Sox Kevin Boles .549 Triple-A Baseball National Championship

[edit] League Award Winners

Year Most Valuable Player, Position
Team
Most Valuable Pitcher
Team
Manager of the Year
Team
1932 Marv Owen, 3B
Newark Bears
1933 Red Rolfe, 3B
Newark Bears
1934 Ike Boone, OF-Manager
Toronto Maple Leafs
1935 George Puccinelli, OF
Baltimore Orioles
1936 Beauty McGowan, OF
Buffalo Bisons
1937 Buck Crouse, C-Manager
Buffalo Bisons/Baltimore Orioles
1938 Ollie Carnegie, OF
Buffalo Bisons
1939 Mickey Witek, SS
Newark Bears
1940 Mike Ryba, P
Rochester Red Wings
1941 Fred Hutchinson, P
Buffalo Bisons
1942 Red Barrett, P
Syracuse Chiefs
1943 Red Schoendienst, SS
Rochester Red Wings
1944 Howie Moss, OF
Baltimore Orioles
1945 Sherm Lollar, C
Baltimore Orioles
1946 Eddie Robinson, 1B
Baltimore Orioles
1947 Hank Sauer, OF
Syracuse Chiefs
1948 Jimmy Bloodworth, 2B
Montreal Royals
1949 Bobby Morgan, SS
Montreal Royals
1950 Tom Poholsky, P
Rochester Red Wings
1951 Archie Wilson, OF
Buffalo Bisons
1952 Jim Gilliam, 2B-OF
Montreal Royals
1953 Rocky Nelson, 1B
Montreal Royals
Bob Trice
Ottawa A's
1954 Elston Howard,
Toronto Maple Leafs
Tony Jacobs
Rochester Red Wings
1955 Rocky Nelson,
Montreal Royals
Jack Crimian
Toronto Maple Leafs
1956 Mike Goliat,
Toronto Maple Leafs
Lynn Lovenguth
Toronto Maple Leafs
1957 Mike Baxes, SS
Buffalo Bisons
Don Johnson
Toronto Maple Leafs
1958 Rocky Nelson,
Toronto Maple Leafs
Tommy Lasorda
Montreal Royals
1959 Pancho Herrera,
Buffalo Bisons
Bill Short
Richmond Virginians
1960 Jim King,
Toronto Maple Leafs
Al Cicotte
Toronto Maple Leafs
1961 Ted Savage,
Buffalo Bisons
Diomedes Olivo
Columbus Jets
1962 Tony Martinez,
Jacksonville Suns
Joe Schaffernoth
Jacksonville Suns
1963 Don Buford,
Indianapolis Indians
Fred Ackley
Indianapolis Indians
1964 Joe Morgan,
Jacksonville Suns
Mel Stottlemyre Sr.
Richmond Virginians
1965 Joe Foy,
Toronto Maple Leafs
Sam Jones
Columbus Jets
1966 Mike Epstein,
Rochester Red Wings
Gary Waslewski
Toronto Maple Leafs
1967 Tommie Aaron,
Richmond Braves
Dave Leonhard
Rochester Red Wings
Jack Tighe
Toledo Mud Hens
1968 Merv Rettenmund,
Rochester Red Wings
Dave Roberts
Columbus Jets
Jack Tighe
Toledo Mud Hens
1969 Luis Alvarado, SS
Louisville Colonels
Ron Klimkowski
Syracuse Chiefs
Clyde McCullough
Tidewater Tides
1970
George Kopacz,
Columbus Jets
Roger Freed,
Rochester Red Wings
Rob Gardner
Syracuse Chiefs
Frank Verdi
Syracuse Chiefs
1971 Bobby Grich, SS
Rochester Red Wings
Roric Harrison
Rochester Red Wings
Joe Altobelli
Rochester Red Wings
1972 Dwight Evans,
Louisville Colonels
Gene Garber
Charleston Charlies
Hank Bauer
Tidewater Tides
1973 Jim Fuller, OF-DH
Rochester Red Wings
Dick Pole
Pawtucket Red Sox
Joe Morgan
Pawtucket Red Sox
1974 Jim Rice, OF
Pawtucket Red Sox
Scott McGregor
Syracuse Chiefs
Karl Kuehl
Memphis Blues
1975 Mike Vail, OF
Tidewater Tides
Craig Swan
Tidewater Tides
Joe Frazier
Tidewater Tides
1976
Rich Dauer, 2B
Rochester Red Wings
Mickey Klutts, SS
Syracuse Chiefs
Joe Lis, 1B
Toledo Mud Hens
Dennis Martinez
Rochester Red Wings
Joe Altobelli
Rochester Red Wings
1977 Ted Cox,
Pawtucket Red Sox
Mike Parrott
Rochester Red Wings
Joe Morgan
Pawtucket Red Sox
1978 Gary Allenson, C
Pawtucket Red Sox
Juan Berenguer
Tidewater Tides
Jim Beauchamp
Charleston Charlies
1979
Bobby Brown, OF
Columbus Clippers
Dave Stapleton, 1B-3B
Pawtucket Red Sox
Rick Anderson
Columbus Clippers
Vern Benson
Syracuse Chiefs
1980 Marshall Brant, 1B
Columbus Clippers
Bob Kammeyer
Columbus Clippers
Joe Altobelli
Columbus Clippers
1981 Brett Butler,
Richmond Braves
Bob Ojeda
Pawtucket Red Sox
Eddie Haas
Richmond Braves
1982 Tucker Ashford,
Columbus Clippers
Craig McMurtry
Richmond Braves
Eddie Haas
Richmond Braves
1983 Tim Teufel, 2B
Toledo Mud Hens
Walt Terrell
Tidewater Tides
Doc Edwards
Charleston Charlies
1984 Scott Bradley,
Columbus Clippers
Brad Havens
Toledo Mud Hens
Tony Torchia
Pawtucket Red Sox
1985 Dan Pasqua, OF
Columbus Clippers
Tom Henke
Syracuse Chiefs
Doug Ault
Syracuse Chiefs
1986 Pat Dodson, 1B
Pawtucket Red Sox
John Mitchell
Tidewater Tides
John Hart
Rochester Red Wings
1987 Randy Milligan, 1B
Tidewater Tides
Brad Arnsberg
Columbus Clippers
Ed Nottle
Pawtucket Red Sox
1988 Craig Worthington, 3B
Rochester Red Wings
Steve Searcy
Toledo Mud Hens
Johnny Oates
Rochester Red Wings
1989 Tom O'Malley, 3B
Tidewater Tides
Alex Sanchez
Syracuse Chiefs
Bob Bailor
Syracuse Chiefs
1990 Hensley Meulens, OF
Columbus Clippers
Dave Eiland
Columbus Clippers
Greg Biagini
Rochester Red Wings
1991 Derek Bell, OF
Syracuse Chiefs
Mike Mussina
Rochester Red Wings
Butch Hobson
Pawtucket Red Sox
1992 J.T. Snow, 1B
Columbus Clippers
Sam Militello
Columbus Clippers
Lee Elia
Scranton/Wilkes-Barre Red Barons
1993 Jim Thome, 3B
Charlotte Knights
Aaron Sele
Pawtucket Red Sox
Mike Quade
Ottawa Lynx
1994 Jeff Manto, 3B-1B
Norfolk Tides/Rochester Red Wings
Brad Woodall
Richmond Braves
Grady Little
Richmond Braves
1995 Butch Huskey, 3B
Norfolk Tides
Jason Isringhausen
Norfolk Tides
Toby Harrah
Norfolk Tides
1996 Phil Hiatt, 3B
Toledo Mud Hens
Mike Fyhrie
Norfolk Tides
Buddy Bailey
Pawtucket Red Sox
1997 Roberto Petagine, 1B
Norfolk Tides
Brian Rose
Pawtucket Red Sox
Marv Foley
Rochester Red Wings
1998 Roberto Petagine, 1B-OF
Indianapolis Indians
Shannon Withem
Syracuse Sky Chiefs
Ken Macha
Pawtucket Red Sox
1999 Steve Cox, 1B
Durham Bulls
Ed Yarnall
Columbus Clippers
Tom Spencer
Charlotte Knights
2000 Chad Mottola, OF
Syracuse Sky Chiefs
Jon Garland
Charlotte Knights
Joel Skinner
Buffalo Bisons
2001 Toby Hall, C
Durham Bulls
Brandon Duckworth
Scranton/Wilkes-Barre Red Barons
Eric Wedge
Buffalo Bisons
2002 Raul Gonzalez, OF
Louisville RiverBats
Joe Roa
Scranton/Wilkes-Barre Red Barons
Marc Bombard
Scranton/Wilkes-Barre Red Barons
2003 Fernando Seguignol, DH
Columbus Clippers
Bronson Arroyo
Pawtucket Red Sox
Buddy Bailey
Pawtucket Red Sox
2004 Jhonny Peralta, SS/3B
Buffalo Bisons
Ben Hendrickson
Indianapolis Indians
Marty Brown
Buffalo Bisons
2005 Shane Victorino, OF
Scranton/Wilkes-Barre Red Barons
Zach Duke
Indianapolis Indians
Larry Parrish
Toledo Mud Hens
2006 Kevin Witt, 1B
Durham Bulls
Heath Phillips
Charlotte Knights
John Russell
Scranton/Wilkes-Barre Red Barons
2007 Mike Hessman, 3B
Toledo Mud Hens
Kevin Slowey
Rochester Red Wings
Dave Miley
Scranton/Wilkes-Barre Yankees
2008 Jeff Bailey, OF-1B
Pawtucket Red Sox
Charlie Zink
Pawtucket Red Sox
Rick Sweet
Louisville Bats
2009 Shelley Duncan, OF-1B
Scranton/Wilkes-Barre Yankees
Justin Lehr
Lehigh Valley Ironpigs/Louisville Bats
Rick Sweet
Louisville Bats
2010 Dan Johnson, 3B
Durham Bulls
Jeremy Hellickson
Durham Bulls
Charlie Montoyo
Durham Bulls
2011 Russ Canzler, 1B
Durham Bulls
Julio Teheran
Gwinnett Braves
Mike Sarbaugh
Columbus Clippers
2012 Mauro Gomez, DH
Pawtucket Red Sox
Tyler Cloyd
Lehigh Valley IronPigs
Dave Miley
Empire State Yankees
2013 Chris Colabello, 1B
Rochester Red Wings
J.D. Martin
Durham Bulls
Charlie Montoyo
Durham Bulls
2014 Steven Souza, OF
Syracuse Chiefs
Anthony Ranaudo
Pawtucket Red Sox
Billy Gardner Jr.
Syracuse Chiefs

[edit] Record Holders

IL record holders for a single season include:

[edit] Cities Represented

[edit] 1886-1887

[edit] New Jersey

[edit] New York

[edit] Ontario

[edit] Pennsylvania

Became the International Association

[edit] 1898

The Ontario teams continued on as the Canadian League after the league ended July 8

[edit] Michigan

[edit] Ontario

[edit] 1900

Successor of the Canadian League 1899

[edit] Michigan

[edit] Ontario


Grand Rapids disbanded July 3, causing Port Huron and Saginaw to disband. The league disbanded July 5.

[edit] 1908 (Class D)

with records

[edit] New York

[edit] Ontario

St. Thomas, ON: St. Thomas Saints 11-9


Guelph moved to St. Thomas June 12, overall record 22-20. League disbanded July 31

[edit] 1912-present

[edit] Canada

[edit] Cuba

[edit] Arkansas

[edit] Florida

[edit] Georgia

[edit] Indiana

[edit] Kentucky

[edit] Maine

[edit] Massachusetts

[edit] Maryland

[edit] New Jersey

[edit] New York

[edit] North Carolina

[edit] Ohio

[edit] Pennsylvania

[edit] Puerto Rico

[edit] Rhode Island

[edit] Tennessee

[edit] Virginia

[edit] West Virginia

[edit] Hall of Fame Alumni

Hall of Fame Alumni Years in IL Team(s)
Johnny Bench 1966-1967 Buffalo Bisons
Chief Bender 1922, 1923 Reading Aces, Baltimore Orioles
Yogi Berra 1946 Newark Bears
Wade Boggs 1980-1981 Pawtucket Red Sox
Jim Bottomley 1922, 1938 Syracuse Stars, Syracuse Chiefs
Lou Boudreau 1939 Buffalo Bisons
Jim Bunning 1953, 1955 Buffalo Bisons
Roy Campanella 1947 Montreal Royals
Gary Carter 1973-1974 Peninsula Whips, Memphis Blues
Roberto Clemente 1954 Montreal Royals
Bill Dickey 1928 Buffalo Bisons
Don Drysdale 1955 Montreal Royals
Carlton Fisk 1971 Louisville Colonels
Jimmie Foxx 1925 Providence Grays
Charlie Gehringer 1925 Toronto Maple Leafs
Bob Gibson 1958, 1960 Rochester Red Wings
Tom Glavine 1986-1987 Richmond Braves
Joe Gordon 1937 Newark Bears
Frank Grant 1886-1888 Buffalo Bisons
Lefty Grove 1920-1924 Baltimore Orioles
Chick Hafey 1925 Syracuse Stars
Bucky Harris 1918-1919 Buffalo Bisons
Gabby Hartnett 1943-1944 Jersey City Giants
Rogers Hornsby 1938 Baltimore Orioles
Waite Hoyt 1917, 1918 Montreal Royals, Newark Bears
Carl Hubbell 1926 Toronto Maple Leafs
Monte Irvin 1949-1950 Jersey City Giants
Travis Jackson 1937-1938 Jersey City Giants
Fergie Jenkins 1962, 1963 Buffalo Bisons, Arkansas Travelers
Walter Johnson 1928 Newark Bears
George Kelly 1917, 1919, 1932 Rochester Hustlers, Jersey City Skeeters
Ralph Kiner 1943 Toronto Maple Leafs
Nap Lajoie 1917 Toronto Maple Leafs
Tony Lazzeri 1939-1940 Toronto Maple Leafs
Bob Lemon 1942 Baltimore Orioles
Heinie Manush 1938-1939 Toronto Maple Leafs
Rabbit Maranville 1927 Rochester Tribe
Rube Marquard 1927 Baltimore Orioles
Joe McGinnity 1912 Newark Sailors
Johnny Mize 1933-1935 Rochester Red Wings
Eddie Murray 1976 Rochester Red Wings
Stan Musial 1941 Rochester Red Wings
Phil Niekro 1966 Richmond Braves
Satchel Paige 1956-1958 Miami Marlins
Jim Palmer 1967-1968 Rochester Red Wings
Herb Pennock 1915, 1916 Providence Grays, Buffalo Bisons
Kirby Puckett 1984 Toledo Mud Hens
Jim Rice 1973-1974 Pawtucket Red Sox
Cal Ripken Jr. 1981 Rochester Red Wings
Jackie Robinson 1946 Montreal Royals
Babe Ruth 1914, 1915 Baltimore Orioles, Providence Grays
Nolan Ryan 1967 Jacksonville Suns
Ray Schalk 1932 Buffalo Bisons
Red Schoendienst 1943-1944 Rochester Red Wings
Tom Seaver 1966 Jacksonville Suns
George Sisler 1931 Rochester Red Wings
Duke Snider 1944, 1948 Montreal Royals
Tris Speaker 1929-1930 Newark Bears
Willie Stargell 1962 Columbus Jets
Dazzy Vance 1918 Rochester Hustlers
Hack Wilson 1935 Albany Senators
Ross Youngs 1917 Rochester Hustlers

[edit] Perfect Games

[edit] Further Reading

  • Bill O'Neal: The International League, Eakin Press, Austin, TX, 1992
  • Marshall D. Wright: The International League: Year-by-Year Statistics 1884-1953, McFarland, Jefferson, NC, 2005 (originally published in 1998).

[edit] External Link

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