From BR Bullpen
Previously known as Toledo Black Pirates (1892), Toledo White Stockings (1894-95), Terre Haute Hottentots (1895), Columbus Buckeyes (1896). Columbus Senators (1897-99), Grand Rapids Furniture Makers (1899), Cleveland Blues (1900-01), Cleveland Bronchos (1902), and Cleveland Naps (1903-1914)
Post Season Record: 43-42 (.506)
Franchise Players: Nap Lajoie, Addie Joss, Elmer Flick, Tris Speaker, Earl Averill, Lou Boudreau, Bob Feller, Bob Lemon, Larry Doby, Rocky Colavito, Albert Belle, Sandy Alomar, Jr., Jim Thome, Omar Vizquel
Ball Parks: Olympic Park, Toledo, OH (1892); White Stocking Park, Toledo, OH (1894-95); Bay View Park (Sun), Toledo, OH (1894-95); Athletic Park, Terre Haute, IN (1895); Recreation Park II, Columbus, OH (1896-99); Ramona Park, Grand Rapids, MI (1899), League Park I (1900-1909); Fairview Park, Dayton, OH (6/8/1902); Mahaffey Park, Canton, OH (6/15/1902; 5/10/1903); Jailhouse Flats, Ft. Wayne, IN (6/22/1902; 8/31/1902); Neil Park I, Columbus, OH (8/3/1902; 5/17/1903; 6/21/1903); League Park II (1910-1932, 1934-46); Cleveland Stadium (1932-33, 1947-93); Jacobs Field aka (Progressive Field) 1994-Present; Miller Park, Milwaukee, WI (4/10-12/07)
 The Cleveland Indians
One of the American League's original teams, the Cleveland Indians have had a history of intermittent success and long periods of ineptitude. The team won their first World Series in 1920, then didn't make the Fall Classic again for 28 years. The 1948 season is the most fondly remembered by Indians fans, as the team won the American League's first ever tiebreaking playoff game (against the Boston Red Sox) and took the World Series in six games from the Boston Braves. They won the pennant again in 1954 with a then AL-record 111 wins, but were swept in the World Series by the New York Giants.
There followed a period of horrible doldrums. Team management traded slugger Rocky Colavito for Harvey Kuenn before the 1960 season. Colavito had led the league in home runs in 1959, Kuenn in batting average. Kuenn had a decent season in 1960, but missed 28 games and was traded after the season ended. Colavito went on to be a star with other teams, playing in the All-Star Game in four of the next five years. Only six times between 1960 and 1993 did the team have a winning record; only once in the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s did they finish as high as third (Of the 24 teams in existence when the leagues went to divisional play in 1969, only the Washington Senators/Texas Rangers franchise went longer before making postseason play).
Over time, Municipal Stadium was allowed to deteriorate and there were rumors that the team would be moved to another city. However, new ownership sparked a revival of interest, and the team moved into new Jacobs Field in 1994. Though the 1994 season was unfinished because of the MLB labor dispute, in 1995 the Indians won the AL Central Division title, and won it again in five of the next six seasons. They won the AL pennant in 1995 and 1997, but lost the Series in both years. The loss was particularly excruciating in 1997, as closer Jose Mesa blew a late lead in the deciding 7th game of the Series against the Florida Marlins. The team's hitting stars were Albert Belle, Kenny Lofton, Jim Thome and Omar Vizquel, while the top pitchers were Charles Nagy and Bartolo Colon.
The Indians continued to be competitive for the remainder of the 1990s, then fell back a notch in the 2000s. However, in 2007, they came within one game of returning to the World Series, before losing the ALCS to the Boston Red Sox after taking a 3 game to 1 lead. The team's stars during the 2000s were pitchers CC Sabathia and Cliff Lee, who won back-to-back Cy Young Awards and C Victor Martinez. They were all gone via trade as the team headed into the 2010s.
The team adopted the name "Indians" in 1915, after having been known informally in its first seasons as the "Naps", after team captain Napoleon Lajoie, one the biggest stars of the early years of the American League. The name did not attract controversy until the end of the 20th century, when the Indians' appearance in two World Series in 1995 and 1997 brought national attention, and criticism of the name and especially of the team's mascot, Chief Wahoo, a caricature of a smiling Native American figure. Still, not much changed, as the team continued to use both its name and mascot. In 2014, a Native American activist sued the team for $9 billion, a number "representing nearly 100 years of racism and profiteering since the team adopted its current name in 1915." The lawsuit came on the heels of a strong campaign to see the Washington Redskins of the National Football League change their name.
 Hall of Famers who played or managed for Cleveland
- Earl Averill
- Lou Boudreau
- Steve Carlton
- Stan Coveleski
- Larry Doby
- Dennis Eckersley
- Bob Feller
- Elmer Flick
- Joe Gordon
- Walter Johnson
- Addie Joss
- Ralph Kiner
- Nap Lajoie
- Bob Lemon
- Al Lopez
- Eddie Murray
- Hal Newhouser
- Phil Niekro
- Satchel Paige
- Gaylord Perry
- Sam Rice
- Frank Robinson
- Joe Sewell
- Billy Southworth
- Tris Speaker
- Hoyt Wilhelm
- Dick Williams
- Dave Winfield
- Early Wynn
- Cy Young
 Retired Numbers
- 3 Earl Averill
- 5 Lou Boudreau
- 14 Larry Doby
- 18 Mel Harder
- 19 Bob Feller
- 21 Bob Lemon
- 42 Jackie Robinson (retired throughout Major League Baseball)
 Famous Feats
Two Home Runs in the Same Inning:
- Carlos Baerga 1993 (One batting right-handed, one batting left-handed)
 Further Reading
- Peter Filichia: Green Cathedrals: The Ultimate Celebrations of All 273 Major League and Negro League Ballparks Past and Present, Addison Wesley Publishing Company (March 1993)
- John R. Husman: Baseball in Toledo, Arcadia Publishing, Charleston, SC, 2003.
- Jonathan Knight: Classic Tribe: The 50 Greatest Games in Cleveland Indians History, Kent State University Press, Kent, OH, 2009.
- Franklin Lewis: The Cleveland Indians, Kent State University Press, Kent, OH, 2006 (first published in 1949). ISBN 0-87338-885-2
- Stephanie M. Liscio: Integrating Cleveland Baseball: Media Activism, the Integration of the Indians and the Demise of the Negro League Buckeyes, McFarland, Cleveland, OH, 2010.
- Scott Longert: The Best They Could Be: How the Cleveland Indians became the Kings of Baseball, 1916-1920, Potomac Books, Dulles, VA, 2013. ISBN 978-1612344935
- James E. Odenkirk: "A Bitter Rivalry recalled: The Cleveland Indians and the New York Yankees, 1947-1956", in The National Pastime, SABR, Volume 28 (2008), pp. 78-86.
- James E. Odenkirk: "Of Tribes of Tribulations: The Early Decades of the Cleveland Indians", McFarland, Jefferson, NC, 2015. ISBN 978-0-7864-7983-2
- George Christian Pappas: A Tribe Reborn: How the Cleveland Indians of the 90s Went from Cellar Dwellers to Playoff Contenders, Sports Publishing LLC, New York, NY, 2014. ISBN 978-1613216378
- Terry Pluto: The Curse of Rocky Colavito: A loving look at a thirty-year slump, Fireside Books, Simon & Schuster, New York, NY, 1995.
- Terry Pluto: Dealing: The Cleveland Indians' New Ballgame, Gray & Company, Publishers, Cleveland, OH, 2007.
- Russell Schneider : The Cleveland Indians Encyclopedia, Temple University Press, Philadelphia, PA, 1996. ISBN 978-1-56639-405-5
- Russell Schneider: Whatever Happened to Super Joe?: Catching Up with 45 Good Old Guys from the Bad Old Days of the Cleveland Indians, Gray & Company, Publishers, Cleveland, OH, 2007.
- Russell Schneider: Cleveland Indians Legends, Black Squirrel Books, Kent State University Press, Kent, OH, 2013. ISBN 978-1-60635-178-9
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