1983 in Japanese baseball
 Nippon Professional Baseball
The Hankyu Braves' Yutaka Fukumoto steals his 939th base, passing the Major League record of Lou Brock.
- Bold indicates league champion; Italics indicate Nippon Series winner
 Central League
 Pacific League
- Bold indicates league record, Italics indicate all-time record
 All-Star Game
The NPB All-Star Game featured three games and was won by the Pacific League three games to none. The first game was played at Meiji Jingu Baseball Stadium and was won by the PL, 5 - 3. The second game was played at Nishinomiya Baseball Stadium and was won by the PL, 4 - 3. The third game was played at Hiroshima Municipal Baseball Stadium and was won by the PL, 4 - 1.
In the Nippon Series, the Seibu Lions (PL) defeated the Yomiuri Giants (CL), 4 games to 3. The winning manager was Tatsuro Hirooka and the series MVP was Takuji Ota.
 Award Winners
The winner of the 1983 Sawamura Award was Kazuhiko Endo of the Yokohama Taiyo Whales. He had a 18 - 9 win-loss record, 186 strikeouts, and a 2.87 ERA in 238.1 innings.
 Best Nine
The following players were part of the 1983 Best Nine teams.
 Diamond Gloves
The following players were the recipients of the Diamond Glove Award in 1983.
 High School Baseball
The 65th National High School Baseball Championship featured a total of 3568 schools competing for 49 spots in the finals at Koshien. In the championship game PL Gakuen (Osaka) defeated Yokohama High School (Kanagawa) by a score of 3 - 0.
The 55th National High School Baseball Invitational Tournament featured 32 schools competing in the tournament at Koshien. In the championship game Ikeda High School (Tokushima) defeated Yokohama High School (Kanagawa) by a score of 3 - 1.
 University Baseball
 All-Japan University Baseball Championship Series
The 1983 All-Japan University Baseball Championship Series featured 16 schools competing in the tournament at Meiji-Jingu Stadium. In the championship game Komazawa University defeated Kinki University by a score of 5 - 1.
 Meiji Jingu Baseball Convention
In the Meiji Jingu Baseball Convention Tokai University defeated Komazawa University.
 Tokyo Big6 Baseball League
 Tohto University Base Ball League
 Kansai 6 University Baseball League
 International Baseball
 Japanese Players in Other Countries
 Hall of Fame
The following people were elected to the Japanese Baseball Hall of Fame: